The history, politics and cultures of people of African decent is known as Black Studies. The four major movements that lead to the establishment of Black Studies curriculum at Colleges and Universities are: the Civil Rights Movement, the Free Speech Movement, the Anti-Vietnam War Movement and the Black Power Movement.  Essentially, the Civil Rights Movement sought to break down barriers of legal segregation in public places, achieve equality and justice for blacks and organize blacks into a self-conscious social force capable of defining, defending, and advancing their interests. Though there were many trials and tribulations along the way, many blacks were determined to be equal and they were determined to have a voice. They were lead by notable African Americans such as Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X, Jesse Jackson and a host of other individuals.
The Free Speech Movement was started by a group of white students on the campus of UC Berkeley. They were protesting against the unresponsive character of the university and they demanded civil rights on campus. The Anti-War Movement was initiated by a white student with African American followers and they protested against the Vietnam War. They were opposed to the war because of the government??™s war against Third World liberation, the threat to draft blacks and other males of colors and fighting an unjust war for a nation depriving blacks of basic civil and human rights.  The struggle soon brought change to the university due to student??™s power and activism.
Lastly, was the Black Power Movement which marked the beginning of a series of revolts across the country through the latter parts of the 60??™s.  The movement brought about relations of power in society, the pervasive character of racism and the need to establish order and create a better society. They stressed the importance of self-determination and an education that was meaningful to the students, useful to the community, and reflective of the realities of society and world. Egypt brought many contributions to history such as beauty, techniques of writing and mathematics, irrigation and agriculture, building pyramids and gold. In schools, children are being misled by the real truth of Egypt??™s history. Egypt was built and governed by African Americans but we were taught that Europeans made the discovery of Egypt and that we as African Americans only were slaves.
The legacy of Egypt is still debated because it is said that Europeans are responsible for the contributions made and not African Americans. The traditions of Egypt belong to African Americans because we brought them about. It is important to incorporate Ancient Egypt and Classical African Civilizations into AFAM Studies because students need to learn the truth about history and even their background. For years, I was misled about the history of Egypt and it took for me to be in my senior year in college to find out the truth.
The Missouri Compromise stipulated that all the Louisiana Purchase territory north of the southern boundary of Missouri, except Missouri, would be free, and the territory below that line would be slave states. The Kansas-Nebraska act was passed to the U.S. Congress on May 30, 1854 and it allowed people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery within their borders. Under the Missouri Compromise, slavery would have been outlawed in both territories and soon it turned violent, splitting the North and the South. After much confusion soon Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state.
 Maulana Karenga, Introduction to Black Studies (University of Sankore Press, 2002), 9-12.
 Kansas- Nebraska Act. 1854, 2010. www.ourdocuments.gov